OBJECTIVES - The purpose of IAS 21, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates, is to set out how to account for transactions in foreign currencies and foreign operations. The Standard also shows how to translate financial statements into a presentation currency. The presentation currency is the currency in which the financial statements are presented. The key issues are the exchange rate(s) that should be used and where the effects of changes in exchange rates are reported in the financial statements.
SCOPE – As stated in paragraph 3 of IAS 21, the Standard shall be applied :
(a) in accounting for transactions and balances in foreign currencies, except for those derivative transactions and balances that are within the scope of IAS 39, Financial Instruments : Recognition and Measurement and IFRS 9, Financial Instruments;
(b) in translating the results and financial position of foreign operations that are included in the financial statements of the entity by consolidation, proportionate consolidation or the equity method; and
(c) in translating an entity’s results and financial position into a presentation currency.
Further, paragraph 4 of IAS 21 states that IFRS 9 and IAS 39 apply to many foreign currency derivatives and, accordingly, these are excluded from the scope of this Standard. However, those foreign currency derivatives that are not within the scope of IFRS 9 and IAS 39 (e.g., some foreign currency derivatives that are embedded in other contracts) are within the scope of this Standard.
In addition, this Standard applies when an entity translates amounts relating to derivatives from its functional currency to its presentation currency.
This Standard does not apply to hedge accounting for foreign currency items, including the hedging of a net investment in a foreign operation. IAS 39 applies to hedge accounting.
This Standard applies to the presentation of an entity’s financial statements in a foreign currency and sets out requirements for the resulting financial statements to be described as complying with IFRSs. For translations of financial information into a foreign currency that do not meet these requirements, this Standard specifies information to be disclosed.
This Standard does not apply to the presentation in a statement of cash flows of the cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency, or to the translation of cash flows of a foreign operation, which are within the scope of IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows (Hrd).